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Camera Jim's Guides To eBay Auction Photography
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CameraJim's: Home | Selecting a Camera | Cameras, Controls | Lighting | Jewelry | Flatware | Glassware | Clothing | Artwork | Coins
Copyright 2006, camerajim and Sigma-2 Associates, Inc.

Coin Photography

The Coin as a Photo Subject

Before I get into the different ways to photograph a coin, I'd like you to think about the coin as a photo subject. The mistake I think many people make when photographing coins is to think of them as flat objects. That is far from the truth. In fact, a coin is a small three-dimensional sculpture, with depth, dimension and texture. To complicate matters, this sculpture is made of a material which reflects light in ways not often encountered with most objects.

This is why I think it's a mistake to use a scanner to illustrate coins for sale on eBay. A scanner is optimized to reproduce flat objects. While it may give a sharp, recognizable image, a scanner can't do justice to the look and feel of a good coin.

For this subject, you need a capable camera, proper lighting and good technique.

Selecting a Camera and Camera Basics

Throughout this guide, I will assume you have a good digital camera, but you could take your photos with a film camera instead of a digital camera. Your photo processor can then give you a CD with digital images which can be uploaded to your computer. However, for eBay use, it is much more economical and convenient to shoot digitally.

If you need more help with selecting a digital camera, you can find some general guidelines and a few model recommendations in this section of CameraJim's Guide Selecting a Camera for eBay Photography

Before proceeding, I'd also suggest you read this section... Cameras, Controls & Settings

Using a Camera's Built-in Flash to Light Coins

Normally, I would warn strongly against using the built-in flash on a digital camera as a light source for eBay photos. In general, such a small light source, placed so close to the camera lens, produces a flat, unflattering effect. However, coins are a bit different than most items.

For one thing, because extreme close-ups are required for coins, a built-in flash can be at a significantly different angle than the lens. This reduces the flattening effect, especially if the camera has a pop-up flash, which further increases the difference in angles.

On the other hand, most digital cameras do not do a good job of throttling down a flash for such short-range shooting. This leads to severe overexposure, especially of a highly reflective coin. Also, because of the short distance, the light falloff from one side of the coin to the other can be too stark, leading to extremely bright and extremely dark areas.

You may have had better luck, but the shot below of an 1892 Morgan dollar is the best I've been able to do with a built-in flash.

This was taken with a very capable camera (a Canon Digital Rebel). In order to keep from overwhelming the coin with the flash, I shot in manual exposure mode, setting a very small lens aperture. This gave me a nice, sharp photo, but that's about the only good thing about it.

As you can see, the coin is a bit too bright at the top and much too dark at the bottom. Worse, the harshness of the flash overemphasizes every tiny detail in the coin. Believe me, this coin looks better than this in real life, as you'll see in the next section.

The Direction of Light Affects How a Coin Looks

If you check coin listings on eBay, it quickly becomes clear many sellers never think of their coins as individual sculptures, requiring different lighting approaches. There are many ways for light to affect the look of a coin, but the most important one is the light's direction.

At the very least, consider that many coins contain human faces or figures. Would you light a person from beneath the chin or behind the head? Well, not someone you like, at least.

Let's take a look at that 1892 Morgan dollar again. In each of the following photos, the lighting is provided by a single diffuse tungsten light, at approximately a 45-degree angle to the face of the coin. The only thing different is the direction of the light.

First, with the light striking from the top

While that's not terrible, and you can see the condition of the coin fairly well, I wouldn't advise lighting your spouse the same way.

Now, here's the Morgan lit from beneath

厀hich I think is just plain ugly. Do not do this

In fact, I can't think of any instance in which you might want such "Frankenstein" lighting.

And I think that lighting from behind the head

卝ust shows you were too lazy to turn the coin or the light around.

Of course, this does show off Liberty's cap and hair nicely.

On the other hand,

I think that lighting the lady's face is the right thing to do

卐ven if the light is coming from the left side as in this case.

You may not always be shooting a coin with a face, but I think this shows how much a good sense of direction can add to your presentation of a coin.

A Basic One-Light Setup

In this guide, I'll be discussing a number of different lighting setups and techniques for coin photos, but after talking about this a bit on eBay's Coins & Paper Money discussion board, I've concluded

No single lighting technique is "best."

Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Some techniques show small surface detail well; others excel at showing luster or toning. In fact, a single eBay coin auction or listing could well use more than one lighting technique, allowing prospective buyers to properly evaluate the coin.

In most cases, a coin can be adequately shown with just one light source. As already discussed, placement of a light source has a lot to do with how the coin will look; but in general, I think a light placed to one side and at a relatively low angle usually works best.

In this setup, the light is approximately at a 30-degree angle to the coin. Notice it is placed further away than the camera's lens. This helps keep stray light from getting into the optics and lowering contrast. In all of the setups I am showing, I have my camera mounted on a photo copy stand, pointing downward at the coins. If you don't have such a copy stand, a small tripod would do. However, you will definitely need a firm camera support for maximum sharpness and to do your coins justice. If you will be shooting a lot of coins, I think a copy stand would be a good investment.

The light shown above is a single 150-watt tungsten bulb, mounted in a simple conical reflector to the left of the camera. Adjusting this light to different angles can give different effects. A very low angle will rake the light beam across the coin surface梞aking design edges, surface nicks and marks stand out sharply.

A high angle will increase the reflective shine of the coin. However, this gain will come with some loss of contrast and detail. This photo was shot with the light at approximately the angle shown in the setup above and with a bare bulb.

I'm not entirely happy with that shot, because the brightest areas, such as below Liberty's chin, are without detail. At the same time, the harshness of the light actually overemphasized a few small surface defects in darker areas. All in all, it's a serviceable photo, but it could be improved by diffusing or filtering the light.

High Contrast or Soft Lighting

After lighting direction, the size of a light has the most to do with how an object will look. By "size" I don't mean the power of the light, but rather the physical area of the light source, in relation to the object.

A tiny, point source of light will create bright highlights and deep, dark shadows. This increases the sense of sharpness in a photo, but it can also obscure important factors such as toning or luster on a coin.

A broad light source will reduce the harshness of highlights and soften shadows. While some sense of sharpness is lost, the increased visibility of other details can make this a good tradeoff. Carried to an extreme, however, a very broad light source can make a coin look flat and lifeless.

The distance of the light source matters, too. Although the sun is a very large object, at its distance from earth it occupies less than half a degree in the sky, so it acts like a point source, producing very contrasty light. On the other hand, a small household light bulb placed a couple of inches from a coin can act like a very broad light source.

Choosing between contrasty and soft lighting for coin photography is a subjective matter, but it is easy to get the degree of contrast you want by changing the size of your light source.

Creating Softer Light with a Diffuser

The easiest way to make a light source larger and softer is with a light diffuser. This can be any form of translucent material placed between the light and the subject. The diffuser then becomes the light source, which is now as broad as the lighted area of the diffuser.

Professional photographers use many fancy types of light diffusers such as scrims and soft boxes, but at the scale of coin photography you don't need anything that elaborate. For instance, you could use something as simple as a sheet of plastic from an overhead fluorescent light, as in this setup. I propped this plastic sheet against my camera, but you could also mount one directly in front of a light with a simple clamp (being careful of overheating, of course).

This sheet of plastic has now turned my small light source into one that is a full foot square.
Using the setup above, this photo is the result.

To my eye, this is an improvement over the bare-bulb photo I showed above in "A Basic One-Light Setup," but it still isn't good enough. The single light source still gives uneven lighting across the face of the coin and the angle of the light leaves the shadowed areas a bit dark.

Smoother Light - Lower Contrast

Portrait photographers often use a second light as a "fill" light. Its purpose is to lighten shadows and smooth out image tones. Often, this second light can be provided easily and at almost no cost by a reflector which directs some of the main light back at the subject.

At the close distances required for coin photography, using a reflector as your fill light is a cinch and can be very effective. I've added just such a reflector to this setup in the form of a small sheet of foamcore board, which is white on one side and black on the other. Foamcore board is often used in mounting photos and other artwork. A sheet of white posterboard or any other broad and flat white material will work, too.

Notice my plastic diffusion sheet is still on the left, and I have placed the reflector board so it not only leans against the camera but also extends over it a bit. This helps to reflect some light directly back at the surface of the coin.

In this photo, the above lighting setup has helped to bring out the luster in the coin while still preserving excellent detail.

It may not be absolutely the best coin photo, but as I said earlier, I don't think there is such a thing. However, I think it is a very good lighting arrangement for most coins.

Light Tents

There are all sorts of light tents promoted on eBay for product photography, including expandable fabric cubes, enclosed boxes and even a "coin dome" specifically for coin sellers. Call them what you will, each is nothing more than a way to completely surround an object with a translucent light diffusing material, providing soft light from all sides of an item. Some commercial light tents cost $100 or more. Thankfully, you can make a very good light tent for coin photos for the price of a gallon of milk. And, you get to drink the milk!

The Milk Jug Light Tent

Creating a light tent from a milk jug requires nothing more than a clean, empty milk jug and a sharp knife or scissors. You simply cut off the bottom of the jug to the desired height, place it over your subject, light it evenly and shoot through the neck of the jug. If the neck is too small for your camera lens, cut it off to make the hole large enough. Here is one of these modified milk jugs in use on my copy stand

I cut this jug down only slightly, but you could easily make a few milk jug light tents of different heights to match the focusing distances needed for various sizes of coins. For even more light diffusion, you could use a white, orange-juice jug.

Here, I've shown the milk jug illuminated by only one light, but it is more common to use two lights, with one on either side. This surrounding lighting creates the most even effect.

Using the above setup, this photo was shot through the milk jug with one strong light on the left side and a weaker light on the right side. As you can see, this produces a very soft light which brings out the surface of the coin well.

However, a light tent also results in a lower contrast image, with less definition between the brightest and darkest areas. This in turn leads to a loss of fine detail in raised design elements. Small nicks and scratches are also less prominent.

Axial Lighting

Axial lighting is a little-known technique which I think has great application in coin photography. In this technique, the light path travels straight back and forth along the same axis as the direction of the camera lens. Primarily used with microscopes or forensic photography, axial lighting can produce shadowless, yet high-contrast images with startling levels of detail.

An Axial Lighting Setup

As shown below, an axial lighting setup requires a flat and clear sheet of glass which is placed at a 45-degree angle to both the light source and the camera lens. Most of the light hitting the glass passes through it, but a significant portion of light is reflected downward at the subject梚n this case, a coin. You will notice I've used a small black object to shield the coin from any direct light. I've also darkened the room to avoid any stray reflections in the glass. Therefore, the camera lens sees only the light reflected from the surface of the coin.

Here is one coin photo I took using axial lighting, with a black cloth used as the background Any smooth surfaces perpendicular to the light path, such as Liberty's cheek or the raised faces of the coin lettering, reflect a lot of light back to the lens and show up brightly. Any surfaces which are not perpendicular, such as the Liberty's profile or the edges of the lettering, reflect light away from the lens and show up darker. Smooth surfaces (such as the worn areas in Liberty's hair) also show up very brightly while slightly textured areas (such as the lustrous background field of this coin) appear slightly darker.

In other words, there are no real shadows here, just brighter and darker areas, dependent on the angle, texture and reflective characteristics of each part of the coin. I controlled the exposure in this photo so the brightest areas would not wash out entirely. This makes the coin appear darker than it looks in person, but the emphasis here is on detail, not shine. This high degree of detail can be seen even more clearly in this larger version of the above photo Larger Axial Lighting Photo

Modified Axial Lighting

You can also control and modify the appearance of a coin with small changes in the angle of the reflective glass, causing the light path to be slightly off-axis, as in this example, where the glass was tilted just a couple of degrees more...

As you can see, even a small shift of the light off the primary lens axis loses some of the available detail, but it also restores the lustrous appearance of the coin.

Shooting a Darker Coin with Axial Lighting

Another advantage of axial lighting is that it can increase the contrast in a dark coin, such as an old copper cent. Such coins, shot with traditional lighting setups can sometimes look like featureless blobs, making it hard to see any significant detail. However, axial lighting and a well-chosen exposure can reveal much more...

In person, this coin is quite dark. To do it justice in an eBay auction, you might want to include both an axial lighting photo and another taken with conventional lighting.

Axial Lighting for Proof Coins

If you'll pardon the pun, the place where axial lighting really shines is with proof coins. The mirror finish of the fields on proof coins makes them notoriously difficult to shoot. Any light striking such a mirrored surface at an angle will simply reflect away from the camera, leaving behind what look like featureless black pools surrounding the satin-finish design elements.

Here is an inexpensive proof coin, shot with simple side lighting
                                卆nd here is the same coin, shot using axial lighting

Choosing the Right Lighting for Your Coins

As I said when I started this coin photography series, there is no single approach which is best for all coins. In fact, more than one type of lighting can be used effectively to show different aspects of a single coin. So, I would recommend experimenting with all of these techniques and even to invent variations of your own. The idea is to communicate with people about your coins. For that, a wide lighting vocabulary can be your best tool.

Camera Jim's Guides To eBay Auction Photography
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Copyright 2006, camerajim and Sigma-2 Associates, Inc.

Basic Photographic Lighting Techniques

The Importance of Good Photographic Lighting

Learn how these terms effect product photography... photographic: diffuser, direction, fill, flat, highlight, key, main, reflector, softbox, light stand, light tent, shadows, tripod, umbrella, bright window

Light is nearly as important a tool as your camera

It may be strange to think of light as a tool because it always seems to be there. After all, you can take a snapshot almost anywhere with either available light or the illumination from a built-in flash which turns on automatically. In fact, you are always choosing your lighting (even if only by default), and it is shaping how your subject appears.

The key to effective product photography is lighting, and the key to effective lighting is control. Once you understand how, you can control the strength, size, position, color and number of lights you use. And each of these controls changes how the subject looks.

However, let's take it one light at a time...

An Easy and Simple Window Lighting Photo Setup

If I had to choose just one light to use for product photography, it would be the illumination coming from a bright, non-sunny window. That's because this light is both large (which is what makes it diffuse and soft), and it is directional which can help show off the shape and texture of my subject.

Here is probably one of the most basic eBay photo setups, right next to a bright window. In this setup, a sheet of white posterboard is clamped to a small table, curved up and clamped again to the back of a chair.

Use a Tripod for Sharp Photos

Notice that my camera is on a tripod. A solid support for your camera is another important tool because it will avoid subject blur due to camera motion. Most "out of focus" shots aren't really that at all. They look blurry because the camera moved a tiny bit during the exposure.

Notice also that while the window throws a nice soft glow on the little bronze rabbit I'm shooting, the left side of the rabbit is pretty dark...

Creating a Second Light with a Photographic Reflector

So, I'm going to add a second light to lighten or fill the shadows on the other side of the subject. In this case, my fill light is nothing more than a flat piece of posterboard, propped up and used as a reflector. For those who like to know the "in" jargon, such a flat reflector is commonly referred to as a "flat."

This concept of a main light (sometimes called the "key light" more jargon) and a fill light is important because it's a way for you to control the highlight and shadow values in your scene. Thinking of the reflector shown above as a fill light, I could have increased or decreased its strength by moving it closer to or farther away from the subject. Or, I could have made it much brighter by covering it with aluminum foil.

If the main light is too strong in relation to the fill light, the highlights will be washed out and the shadows will be too dark. If the fill light is too strong, you might wipe out the shadows completely and lose the sense of shape they give your subject.

One of the advantages of a digital camera is seeing an immediate review of your results on the LCD screen, so you can easily experiment with your fill light until the ratio of highlights and shadows looks right to you.

So, here's our little rabbit, shot with the above setup...

Basic Artificial Light Photographic Setup

But what if you don't have a handy window like that or need to shoot at night?

Then, you can use plain old tungsten (incandescent) light. These are just regular household bulbs the kind you use in your table lamps. A couple of 150 watt bulbs would be enough as long as you remember to use that tripod.

You can use these bulbs in either photographic reflectors with light stands (available on eBay or from a camera shop) or just in simple clamp-on reflectors (sold at home centers for $10 or less) such as this one...

Here, thanks again to shipscript, is a simple indoor two-light setup...

Notice both lights are at about 45-degree angles to the subject and the fill light is farther back so it won't be as strong. In general, if the wattage of the two lights is the same, you want the fill light to be about 50% farther away. Or you can use a lower wattage bulb in your fill light and position it at about the same distance as your key light.

Photographic Light Diffusing for Window-Like Softness

You can turn those lights into soft, window-like sources by aiming them through translucent white material (a sheet of tracing paper, a piece of white plastic, etc.) or by bouncing them off reflectors.

Professional photographers use many tools and techniques to diffuse light. If you don't mind spending a few bucks (or more), here are a couple of the more useful ones.

Using a Photographic Umbrella as a Diffuser

First, below is a white photographic umbrella attached to a studio light. In this case, the light is shining through the umbrella, but the whole thing could also be turned around to use the light bounced off the inside surface of that umbrella...

A Softbox Diffuser

Below is another professional lighting tool, a softbox (not to be confused with a light tent more about that later).

A softbox is a large cloth reflector. The light is placed at the rear of this reflector and shines through a large translucent front panel. It's almost like having a large window but one you can place and aim wherever you want. Here is one aimed horizontally...

And in this case, it is aimed straight down over my eBay shooting table...

Accent Photo Lighting for Effect

In addition to key (main) lights and fill lights, photographers often add accent lights for special effects. For instance, in portrait photography, a photographer will sometimes use a "hair light" to add highlights on the subject's hair. This can also help separate the subject from a dark background. This small light is placed high, on the back side of the subject (often somewhat to the side, to keep it out of the picture).

However, you don't have to buy or use lots of lights when you're dealing with small items for eBay. For instance, a simple magnifying makeup or shaving mirror can reflect your main light in a small controlled spot back at the subject. I use one whenever I want to add some sparkle to an item. Here is one being used to brighten up that little rabbit, along with a single softbox...

You might notice I also used a long piece of black posterboard to create a graduated shadow on the background. Here's the resulting shot...

Check out Jewelry where I take up the subject of how to shoot jewelry and other shiny items using a light tent.

Camera Jim's Guides To eBay Auction Photography
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Copyright 2006, camerajim and Sigma-2 Associates, Inc.

Selecting a Camera for eBay Photography

eBay Camera Guidelines

For eBay use, you don't need a high-resolution digital camera.

Almost any digital camera will produce a 640x480 pixel image at its lowest resolution setting, which is a big enough photo to fill a standard VGA computer monitor, or about 2/3 of a 17" monitor. A 640x480 image is only equal to 1/3 of a megapixel. At 1 megapixel, you have a huge image with enough room to crop out unwanted image areas. If you also want to make prints of family photos or for other purposes, you'll want more resolution. As a rule of thumb, a 2 megapixel camera can make acceptable 5x7 prints; you need 3 megapixels for good 8x10 prints. For an "eBay camera," you want...

   • Good macro (close focus) capability Limit your search to cameras that focus to within 4 inches or less.

   • Ease of use For some, this means an easy method of transferring the photos from your camera to your computer, such as the docks sold with some cameras. For me, ease of use means the camera controls are logical, and it's easy to access manual override functions.

   • Comfortable handling Get a chance to handle a camera before buying it. All the best reviews in the world won't help if the camera feels awkward in YOUR hands.

A Few Model Recommendations

Among recently discontinued models, the 2mp Fuji A205 is still available at some outlets and remains a great buy as an eBay camera at less than $100. Another in the same category is the Nikon Coolpix 2200 which costs a little more but focuses even closer.

The 3mp and 4mp cameras have been the entry-level models and among these I like the Fuji A330, the Canon A510 and A520. The Nikon Coolpix 3200 is also an excellent choice among 3mp cameras, but it was recently discontinued by Nikon, and they no longer offer a 3mp camera.

Of the models I've mentioned, the 4mp Canon A520 would be my first choice because it has both fully auto and manual exposure options. It also has a real manual white balance control, which is handy if you want to get the most accurate color. The 3mp A510 has identical features and is slightly cheaper. The most recent models in the Canon A-series lineup are the A530, A540, A610, A620 and A700. Any one of these would do a good job on eBay photos. The choice depends on how much you value a larger image size, a bigger LCD screen or a longer zoom lens. None of these are necessary for eBay work, but they can be handy features for your other photography.

In the end, you can't go wrong if you stick to the major camera manufacturers (e.g., Nikon, Canon, Kodak, Minolta, Pentax, Fuji) and choose a camera which focuses close enough.

If you want some help with your photo techniques, please use the links to my series, CameraJim's Guide To eBay Auction Photography.

Camera Jim's Guides To eBay Auction Photography
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Copyright 2006, camerajim and Sigma-2 Associates, Inc.

Cameras, Controls & Settings

Selecting a Camera

The good news is you don't need an expensive, high-resolution camera for ebay photos. If you're using eBay Picture Services to post your photos, for best results, they recommend uploading an image with a minimum size of 1024x768 pixels. That's a lot less than one megapixel, which almost any digital camera today can exceed. If you host your photos somewhere other than on eBay, you'll probably want to resize them to 640x480 or less.

So, when selecting a camera for eBay use, other factors are much more important than the camera's sensor or image size, including close-focusing ability, ease of use and good handling characteristics.

My Guide, "Selecting a Camera for eBay Photos" has more about this subject, plus a few model recommendations... Selecting an eBay Camera

Basic Camera Controls and Settings

I can't stress enough how important it is to know your camera and its controls. That means you'll have to read the instruction manual. These are the features you should look for in the manual, regardless of brand name....

   • Resolution select the camera's smallest photo size. If you want room to crop the image or upload it to eBay's Picture services, select at least a 1024 x 768 image size.

   • Flash Off disable the flash. This is almost always indicated by a lighting bolt with a circle-slash over it, like this...
   • Macro Focus allows you to take close-ups. It is usually indicated by a tulip flower symbol...
   • White Balance you want to select the symbol which matches the type of light you are using: a lightbulb for indoor shots with incandescent lights; a sun symbol for outdoor photos, etc.

   • EV exposure compensation, indicated by plus (+) and minus (-) symbols. Use a plus number to lighten the image, a minus number to darken it.

Turn that Flash Off!

I've already discussed why you want to set the camera resolution low for ebay pics and the importance of close focusing (that macro setting). But what about those other settings? The reason you want to disable the built-in flash on your camera is because it is just about the worst sort of light for product pics. Direct flash makes your objects look 2-dimensional and it also glares back at you from any shiny surface.

White Balance Control Getting Accurate Colors

The white balance actually controls color temperature balance. Every type of light has a color temperature and almost every digital camera also has an automatic white balance feature, to try to adjust for this. That's fine for snapshots, but product photos are more demanding, so you'll need to learn how to preset the white balance to match the type of light you're using (daylight, shade, tungsten, fluorescent).

Exposure Control Correcting Light & Dark Pics

The EV or exposure compensation control can be very important for an accurate exposure, especially if you are shooting a predominantly light or dark subject.

Photography board regular dainisjg explained the problem very well with this demonstration (no political agenda intended by the subject)...

“A camera meter tries to set an exposure setting based on an evenly balanced scene of lights and darks. If there is too much dark in a scene, it will overcompensate and the image will be too light; if there is too much white in a scene it will overcompensate again and the image will appear too dark.

The following image was shot on a half black and half white background using the same amount of light and auto exposure:

The meter sees equal amounts of light and dark, is happy and you get a good exposure and photo.

The meter sees too much black, thinks, 'Whoa, way too dark. I had better lighten up a bit' and you get a too-light photo, overexposed.

The meter sees too much white, thinks, 'Whoa, way too light. I had better darken down a bit' and you get a too-dark photo, underexposed.

There is no such thing as your photos are too dark because you don't have enough light. You could have tripled the amount of light on that last photo and the meter would still think 'Whoa, way too light. I had better darken down a bit' and you would still get a too-dark photo. I have taken photos in extremely dimly lit situations where I had to leave the shutter open for several minutes but still got a good photo.” ~ Thanks, dainisjg.

The photos above used the camera's auto exposure, but the results varied dramatically because of the ratio of dark and light in the scene. The remedy for those overexposed and underexposed images is the EV or exposure compensation control. If the photos look too dark, set this control for a positive (e.g., +1.0) value. If they are too light, set the control for a negative (e.g., -1.0) value.

Using a Gray Card for The Most Accurate Colors and Exposures

A simple tool which can help you get more accurate exposures is a gray card. Such a card is printed to a precise and neutral value of 18% gray (white = 0% and complete black = 100%). Here's one in use on my ebay table...

With a basic digital camera, you can take a close-up photo of such a card with the camera on its auto exposure setting. That will give you a perfectly exposed shot for your particular lighting setup. Even the most basic digital cameras will then let you find out what combination of shutter speed and lens aperture was used for that image. That info is usually displayed when you review your picture.

You can then set the camera in its manual or semiautomatic mode for that same combination of shutter speed and aperture. After that, every shot you take with the same lighting will be exposed exactly right.

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Webpage last updated:   Saturday, November 18, 2006